Voltage and current waves on a general transmission line, characteristic impedance, reflections from the load and source, transients on a transmission line, Smith's chart and impedance matching. Maxwell's equations, wave equation, constitutive relations, dispersion, boundary conditions. Plane wave propagation in lossless and lossy media, polarization, power flow and Poynting vector. Plane wave reflection and transmission at material boundaries. Waveguides; propagating and evanescent waveguide modes and cut-off frequencies.