Design of integrated, multidisciplinary systems is introduced through a major course project. Project selection and definition of functions and performance objectives for the open-ended design problem will take place early on by teams of students, while learning practical subjects of engineering in lectures and workshops. This process will lead to the preparation of project proposals consisting of identification of design objectives and constraints, generation and evaluation of potential approaches, selection of the most promising design concept, identification of product subsystems, and assignment of responsibilities to team members. Following project approval, the design process will comprise preliminary design, followed by detailed design, prototype construction and testing, and preparation of a final design report. Progress is evaluated weekly, culminating in a prototype demonstration and design review.
AER201H1: Engineering Design
AER210H1: Vector Calculus & Fluid Mechanics
The first part of this course covers multiple integrals and vector calculus. Topics covered include: double and triple integrals, derivatives of definite integrals, surface area, cylindrical and spherical coordinates, general coordinate transformations (Jacobians), Taylor series in two variables, line and surface integrals, parametric surfaces, Green's theorem, the divergence and gradient theorems, Stokes's theorem. The second part of the course provides a general introduction to the principles of continuum fluid mechanics. The basic conservation laws are derived in both differential and integral form, and the link between the two is demonstrated. Applications covered include hydrostatics, incompressible and compressible frictionless flow, the speed of sound, the momentum theorem, viscous flows, and selected examples of real fluid flows.
Exclusion: CHE211H1, CHE221H1, CME261H1, CME270H1, MAT291H1 or MIE312H1
Recommended Preparation: PHY180H1
Reference frames in relative translation and rotation, vector and matrix formulations. Dynamics of a single particle and of systems of particles. Lagrange's equations. D'Alembert's and Hamilton's principle. Orbital dynamics. Rigid body kinematics and dynamics, Lagrangian approach to vibrations of complex systems. Model analysis. Primary Reference: class notes. Reference Books: Greenwood, Principles of Dynamics; Goldstein, Classical Mechanics.
AER302H1: Aircraft Flight
Basics of aircraft performance with an introduction to static stability and control. Topics covered include: Equations of Motion; Characteristics of the Atmosphere; Airspeed Measurement; Drag (induced drag, total airplane drag); Thurst and Power (piston engine characteristics, gas turbine performance); Climb (range payload); Tunrs; Pull-up; Takeoff; Landing (airborne distance, ground roll); Flight envelope (maneuvering envelope, gust load factors); Longitudinal and lateral static stability and control; Introduction to dynamic stability.
AER303H1: Aerospace Laboratory I
Students will perform a number of experiments in the subject areas associated with the Aerospace Option curriculum, and prepare formal laboratory reports.
AER304H1: Aerospace Laboratory II
Students will perform a number of experiments in the subject areas associated with the Aerospace Option curriculum, and prepare formal laboratory reports.
Review of fundamentals of fluid dynamics, potential-flow, Euler, and Navier-Stokes equations; incompressible flow over airfoils, incompressible flow over finite wings; compressibility effects; subsonic compressible flow over airfoils; supersonic flow; viscous flow; laminar layers and turbulent boundary layers and unsteady aerodynamics. Textbook: Anderson, J.D., Fundamentals of Aerodynamics, 3rd Edition, McGraw Hill, 2001.
Basic introduction to compressible gasdynamics. Includes some fundamental thermodynamics, thermal and caloric equations of state, derivation of Euler's equations by control volume approach. Also, includes the theory of steady flows in ducts with area changes, adiabatic frictional flows, duct flows with heat transfer, normal and oblique shock waves, Prandtl-Meyer expansion wave, moving shock and rarefaction waves, shock tubes, and wind tunnels. The lectures are supplemented by problem sets. Reference book: Anderson, J.D., Modern Compressible Flow with Historical Perspective.
AER315H1: Combustion Processes
Scope and history of combustion, and fossil fuels; thermodynamics and kinetics of combustion including heats of formation and reaction, adiabatic flame temperature, elementary and global reactions, equilibrium calculations of combustion products, and kinetics of pollutant formation mechanisms; propagation of laminar premixed flames and detonations, flammability limits, ignition and quenching; gaseous diffusion flames and droplet burning; introduction to combustion in practical devices such as rockets, gas turbines, reciprocating engines, and furnaces; environmental aspects of combustion.
AER336H1: Scientific Computing
Introduces numerical methods for scientific computation which are relevant to the solution of a wide range of engineering problems. Topics addressed include interpolation, integration, linear systems, least-squares fitting, nonlinear equations and optimization, initial value problems, and partial differential equations. The assignments require programming of numerical algorithms.
AER372H1: Control Systems
An introduction to dynamic systems and control. Models of physical systems. Stability and feedback control theory. Analysis and synthesis of linear feedback systems by "classical" and state space techniques. Introduction to nonlinear and optimal control systems. Digital computer control. Multivariable feedback system design.
Exclusion: CHE322H1, ECE356H1 or MIE404H1
AER373H1: Mechanics of Solids and Structures
An Introduction to Solid and Structural Mechanics. Continuum Mechanics: Stress, strain and constitutive relations for continuous systems, Equilibrium equations, Force and Flexibility methods, Introduction to Cartesian Tensors. Variational Principles: Virtual Work, Complementary Virtual Work, Strain Energy and Work, Principle of Stationary Value of the Total Potential Energy, Complementary Potential Energy, Reissner's Principle, Calculus of Variations, Hamilton's Principle. Beam and Plate theory. Dynamics of discrete and continuous systems.
AER406H1: Aircraft Design
Teams of 3 or 4 students design, build, and fly a remotely piloted aircraft. The aircraft is designed and built to maximize a flight score, which is a complex function of many factors - payload fraction, payload type, flight time, takeoff distance, etc. Teams are provided with identical motors, batteries, radio equipment, and flight instrumentation. Weekly sessions consist of a combination of lectures and one-on-one meetings with the tutors and professor to discuss each teams' progress. Evaluations are based on the weekly reports, preliminary and final design presentations and reports, an as-built report, and measured flight performance.
AER407H1: Space Systems Design
Introduction to the conceptual and preliminary design phases for a space system currently of interest in the Aerospace industry. A team of visiting engineers provide material on typical space systems design methodology and share their experiences working on current space initiatives through workshops and mock design reviews. Aspects of operations, systems, electrical, mechanical, software, and controls are covered. The class is divided into project teams to design a space system in response to a Request for Proposals (RFP) formulated by the industrial team. Emphasis is placed on standard top-down design practices and the tradeoffs which occur during the design process. Past projects include satellites such as Radarsat, interplanetary probes such as a solar sailer to Mars, a Mars surface rover and dextrous space robotic systems.
AER501H1: Computational Structural Mechanics and Design Optimization
Introduction to the Finite Element Method and Structural Optimization. Review of linear elasticity: stress, strain and material constitutive laws, Variational Principles. The Finite Element technique: problem formulation - methods of Ritz and Galerkin, element properties - C0 and C1 formulations, static and dynamic problems: applications to bar, beam, membrane and plate problems. Structural Optimization: Overview of problems, Optimal Design problem formulation, solution strategies - gradient search techniques, Sensitivity analysis for static and dynamic problems, Optimization problems using commercial finite element codes. Text: Shames & Dym, Energy and Finite Element Methods in Structural Mechanics.
Static aeroelastic phenomena are studied, including divergence of 2D sections and slender 3D wings, as well as control reversal of 3D wings. Various methods of solution are considered such as closed form, discrete element, and the Rayleigh-Ritz approach. A study of vibration and flutter of wings and control surfaces is presented with particular emphasis on those parameters that affect flutter speed. Classical, k, and p-k methods for flutter estimation are presented.
AER506H1: Spacecraft Dynamics and Control
Planar "central force" motion; elliptical orbits; energy and the major diameter; speed in terms of position; angular momentum and the conic parameter; Kepler's laws. Applications to the solar system; applications to Earth satellites. Launch sequence; attaining orbit; plane changes; reaching final orbit; simple theory of satellite lifetime. Simple (planar) theory of atmospheric entry. Geostationary satellite; adjustment of perigee and apogee; east-west stationkeeping. Attitude motion equations for a torque-free rigid body; simple spins and their stability; effect of internal energy dissipation; axisymmetric spinning bodies. Spin-stabilized satellites; long-term effects; sample flight data. Dual-spin satellites; basic stability criteria; example-CTS. "active" attitude control; reaction wheels; momentum wheels; controlmoment gyros; simple attitude control systems.
AER507H1: Introduction to Fusion Energy
Nuclear reactions between light elements provide the energy source for the sun and stars. On earth, such reactions could form the basis of an essentially inexhaustible energy resource. In order for the fusion reactions to proceed at a rate suitable for the generation of electricity, the fuels (usually hydrogen) must be heated to temperatures near 100 million Kelvin. At these temperatures, the fuel will exist in the plasma state. This course will cover: (i) the basic physics of fusion, including reaction cross-sections, particle energy distributions, Lawson criterion and radiation balance, (ii) plasma properties including plasma waves, plasma transport, heating and stability, and (iii) fusion plasma confinement methods (magnetic and inertial). Topics will be related to current experimental research in the field.
AER510H1: Aerospace Propulsion
Scope and history of jet and rocket propulsion; fundamentals of air-breathing and rocket propulsion; fluid mechanics and thermodynamics of propulsion including boundary layer mechanics and combustion; principles of aircraft jet engines, engine components and performance; principles of rocket propulsion, rocket performance, and chemical rockets; environmental impact of aircraft jet engines.
AER521H1: Mobile Robotics and Perception
The course addresses fundamentals of mobile robotics and sensor-based perception for applications such as space exploration, search and rescue, mining, self-driving cars, unmanned aerial vehicles, autonomous underwater vehicles, etc. Topics include sensors and their principles, state estimation, computer vision, control architectures, localization, mapping, planning, path tracking, and software frameworks. Laboratories will be conducted using both simulations and hardware kits.
Note: ROB310 will be a required prerequisite for AER521 in 2018-19.
The course addresses fundamentals of analytical robotics as well as design and control of industrial robots and their instrumentation. Topics include forward, inverse, and differential kinematics, screw representation, statics, inverse and forward dynamics, motion and force control of robot manipulators, actuation schemes, task-based and workspace design, mobile manipulation, and sensors and instrumentation in robotic systems. A series of experiments in the Robotics Laboratory will illustrate the course subjects.
APS100H1: Orientation to Engineering
This course is designed to help students transition into first-year engineering studies and to develop and apply a greater understanding of the academic learning environment, the field of engineering, and how the fundamental mathematics and sciences are used in an engineering context. Topics covered include: study skills, time management, problem solving, successful teamwork, effective communications, exam preparation, stress management and wellness, undergraduate research, extra- and co-curricular involvement, engineering disciplines and career opportunities, and applications of math and science in engineering.
APS104H1: Introduction to Materials and Chemistry
This is an introductory course in materials science and physical chemistry. Topics include: fundamentals of atomic, structure, the nature of bonding, crystal structure and defects, the laws of chemical thermodynamics (including a discussion of enthalpy and entropy), reaction equilibrium, and phase equilibria. These basic principles provide the foundation for an exploration of structure-property relationships in metals, ceramics, and polymers, with emphasis on mechanical properties.
APS105H1: Computer Fundamentals
An introduction to computer systems and problem solving using computers. Topics include: the representation of information, programming techniques, programming style, basic loop structures, functions, arrays, strings, pointer-based data structures and searching and sorting algorithms. The laboratories reinforce the lecture topics and develops essential programming skills.
APS106H1: Fundamentals of Computer Programming
An introduction to computer systems and software. Topics include the representation of information, algorithms, programming languages, operating systems and software engineering. Emphasis is on the design of algorithms and their implementation in software. Students will develop a competency in the Python programming language. Laboratory exercises will explore the concepts of both Structure-based and Object-Oriented programming using examples drawn from mathematics and engineering applications.
APS110H1: Engineering Chemistry and Materials Science
This course is structured around the principle of the structure-property relationship. This relationship refers to an understanding of the microstructure of a solid, that is, the nature of the bonds between atoms and the spatial arrangement of atoms, which permits the explanation of observed behaviour. Observed materials behaviour includes mechanical, electrical, magnetic, optical, and corrosive behaviour. Topics covered in this course include: structure of the atom, models of the atom, electronic configuration, the electromagnetic spectrum, band theory, atomic bonding, optical transparency of solids, magnetic properties, molecular bonding, hybridized orbitals, crystal systems, lattices and structures, crystallographic notation, imperfections in solids, reaction rates, activation energy, solid-state diffusion, materials thermodynamics, free energy, and phase equilibrium.
APS111H1: Engineering Strategies & Practice I
This course introduces and provides a framework for the design process. Students are introduced to communication as an integral component of engineering practice. The course is a vehicle for understanding problem solving and developing communications skills. This first course in the two Engineering Strategies and Practice course sequence introduces students to the process of engineering design, to strategies for successful team work, and to design for human factors, society and the environment. Students write team and individual technical reports and give presentations within a discussion group.
APS112H1: Engineering Strategies & Practice II
This course introduces and provides a framework for the design process, problem solving and project management. Students are introduced to communication as an integral component of engineering practice. The course is a vehicle for practicing team skills and developing communications skills. Building on the first course, this second course in the two Engineering Strategies and Practice course sequence introduces students to project management and to the design process in greater depth. Students work in teams on a term length design project. Students will write a series of technical reports and give a team based design project presentation.
APS150H1: Ethics in Engineering
An introduction to professional ethics and the Academic Code of Conduct. Topics include: the theory of ethics, professional code of ethics, ethics in the profession, proper use of intellectual property in the professional and in academic settings, plagiarism, the Academic Code of Conduct, and application of ethics in practice.
The principles of statics are applied to composition and resolution of forces, moments and couples. The equilibrium states of structures are examined. Throughout, the free body diagram concept is emphasized. Vector algebra is used where it is most useful, and stress blocks are introduced. Shear force diagrams, bending moment diagrams and stress-strain relationships for materials are discussed. Stress and deformation in axially loaded members and flexural members (beams) are also covered.
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